FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS DE LA ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA Y EL DEPORTE
Grado en Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte
Exercise Physiology aims to establish the physiological basis of performance, the responses and adaptations of each of the systems that make up the human body to the physical stress that implies physical activity. Knowledge and understanding of these basic concepts allows the scientific study of the physiological aspects of training and the different exercise programs.
The study of this discipline helps to understand the functioning of the body during exercise. In this sense, the insights provided by Exercise Physiology can be applied in three different areas:
• In the area of Sports, athletes and coaches need the knowledge from Exercise Physiology to try to improve performance.
• In the area of Physical Activity and Health, the primary goal of the general population when doing regular exercise is not to improve physical performance, but to induce adaptations that improve the functionality of the various organs and systems and, in this way, to increase the functional capacity and to prevent health risks associated with sedentarism.
• In the area of Clinical, exercise is used as a diagnostic tool and as a therapeutic modality, especially in the cardiology and pulmonary specialties. Other areas such as endocrinology, rheumatology, neurology etc also use exercise as therapeutic support.Accute physical stress provokes transient modifications of the functions of various body systems. In the same way, repeated stress or exercise sessions, in a chronic fashion, induce long-lasting structural and functional modifications called physiological adaptations.
Exercise Physiology is an important branch of Human Physiology studying responses and adaptations of the human body to physical activity. These responses and adaptations vary depending on various factors, such as intensity, duration or frequency of physical activity. Others factors, which include diet, environmental circumstances or individual genetic inheritance can also affect the type and magnitude of those adaptations. Knowledge of Exercise Physiology is crucial in order to scientifically design exercise programs that seek to improve performance, functional capacity or the overall health condition. Knowledge of Exercise Physiology is also necessary to plan adequate doses of physical activity in patients with chronic diseases and thus to achieve the desired benefits performing exercise safely. The understanding of the subjects "Sports Training" and “Physical Activity to Health” as a part of the 3rd year of the Physical Activity and Sports Sciences degree, depends crucially on the mastery of Exercise Physiology. Exercise Physiology is closely related with the subject "Human Anatomy" of the first year, and especially with “Human Physiology " “Human Motricity” and “Biomechanics of Physical Activity and Sport ", which are included as part of the second year of the degree.
ENERGY SOURCES FOR EXERCISE
Lesson 1. Energy systems and exercise
1.1. ntroduction to aerobic and anaerobic systems of energy production
Macronutrients and food sources of energy
1.2. Phosphagens metabolism: ATP and phosohocreatine
1.3. Carbohydrates metabolism
1.4. Fat metabolism
1.5. Protein metabolism
1.6. Integration and determinants of energy substrate utilization during exercise
1.7. Update on relevant scientific advances in energy systems and their implications
Lesson 2. Hormonal regulation of energy metabolism
2.1. Glucose metabolism regulation
2.2. Glucose consumption by active muscles
Lesson 3. Metabolic adaptations to exercise
3.1. Muscle fiber types
3.2. Capillary density
3.3 Mitochondrial Function
3.4. Oxidative anzymes
NEURAL CONTROL OF MOVEMENT
Lesson 4. Ultrastructure of skeletal muscle. Motor units. Metabolic profiles of skeletal muscle fiber types
4.1. General Characteristics
4.2. Muscular plasticity. Effects of training on muscle fibers
Lesson 5. Delayed Onset of Muscle Pain “DOMS”
5.3. Mechanisms involved
5.4. Prevention and treatment
Lesson 6. Neural control of movement
6.1. Motor functions of the spinal cord: spinal reflexes, muscle tone.
6.2. Motor functions of brain stem and basal ganglia
6.3. Motor functions of cerebellum and cortex
6.4. Autonomic nervous system and exercise
CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES ADAPTATIONS TO EXERCISE
Lesson 7. Cardiac response to exercise
7.1. Regulation of the response, heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output.
Lesson 8. Cardiac adaptations to exercise
8.1. Heart size, heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output.
Lesson 9. Peripheral circulation and blood pressure regulation during exercise
ACCOMMODATIONS AND RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO EXERCISE
Lesson 10. Exercise ventilatory response
Lesson 11. Respiratory gases diffusion and transport during exercise
Lesson 12. Regulation of breathing during exercise
Lesson 13. Respiratory regulation of acid-base in the exercise
FUNCTIONAL AEROBIC CAPACITY
Lesson 13. General principles of ergometric evaluation
13.1 General criteria, ergometers and protocols.
13.3. Parameters evaluated.
Lesson 14. Oxygen Consumption
14.1.Concept and physiological bases
14.2. VO2max responses during exercise
Lesson 15. Anaerobic threshold
15.1 Concept and theoretical bases
15.3 Methods of determining the aerobic-anaerobic transition
FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY ASSESSMENT
Lesson 16. Assessment of aerobic power and aerobic capacity. Case study analysis
Lesson 17. Assessment of anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity. Case study analysis
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SPORTS PERFORMANCE
Lesson 18. Environmental influences on physical performance
Lesson 19. Physiological aspects of training
19.1. Adaptation mechanisms
19.2. Fatigue and overtraining
1. BASIC EQUIPMENT OF AN EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY:
1.1. Lactate Analyzer: Use and interpretation of lactate curves
1.2. Gas analyzer and ergometers: handling and techniques involved
2. FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY ASSESSMENT
2.1. Functional capacity assessment: incremental protocols, constant protocols.
2.2. Interpretation of ergospirometry
2.3. Application to exercise performance and health
2.4 Case study analysis
Classroom teaching sessions
Technical Vocabulary Workbook
continuous assessment and pass a theoretical and practical final exam
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